G. Kuprin - General Director of JSC "NPO Sopot"
academician, Ph.D.


Several major fires have occurred in the last 2-3 years in industrial Russia once again point to the problems faced by the relevant units in the field of improving pozharovzryvozaschischennosti objects, and in improving the effectiveness of prevention and fire fighting.
    Insufficient supply of objects, for example, storage of oil and oil products effective means of fire leads, as a rule, in case of fire, for its rapid development to the extent in which the use of standard, conventional fire suppression does not give positive results.
    As a consequence, to extinguish large fires requires a concerted effort not only to fire services companies in which there was a fire, but also the forces and means of local, regional, national and sometimes the federal level.
    Attracting as additional capabilities to fight fires in a particular region of Russia, though provided a plan of cooperation between ministries and departments, but at the same time is a matter of quite problematic, and in the current economic crisis and the limited resources available to address fire is undesirable and economically viable process.
    Also, even temporary transfer capabilities from one region to another, significantly reducing the level of protection of those areas from which the funds are temporarily taken out.
    In connection with the foregoing, are highly relevant issues: firstly equipped units with new efficient fire extinguishing means and secondly the problem of increasing the effectiveness of existing fire fighting equipment, ie, the means to quickly and safely put out the fire at all scales of development.
    Priority should be given in our view, domestic fire fighting facilities, combining the parameters of reliability, high extinguishing efficiency and low cost.
    One example of a solution to the optimization problem to find ways to improve the effectiveness of the fight against large-scale fires in the enterprises of fuel, chemical, oil industry is the work carried out by specialists of JSC "NPO Sopot", Saint-Petersburg.
    It has developed a new technology for producing and delivering to the combustion zone extinguishing foams different dispersion and multiplicity obtained on the basis of aqueous foams.
    The concept of this technology is the simultaneous use of foam laid low and medium expansion.
    Theoretical background for the application of this method are:
    1. Research work carried out over 20 years ago, during Fire Prevention VIPTSH Interior Ministry and the Interior Ministry to study the effectiveness of fire-extinguishing foams with different degrees showed that the highest efficiency have foam extinguishing medium ratio (CP = 40-100), obtained on the basis of domestic foam.
    Such foams have good insulating ability.
    They create on the surface layer of combustible material, which prevents the exit of gases and vapors in the combustion zone, thereby reducing their concentration in the combustion zone. This leads to a decrease in the rate of the chemical reaction of combustion, reducing the temperature in the combustion zone at temperatures up to stop flaming (ie, to a temperature of extinction).
    Medium expansion foam drawback is that they have low kinetic energy, and therefore the range of the jets is small, only 5-6 meters. Also insufficient and speed of spreading foam on the surface of a combustible liquid.
    In the process of extinguishing medium expansion foam exposed to strong convective heat and flame exposure heated to a high temperature metal structures and the surface of combustible materials.
    All these factors cause extensive destruction of the foam, which in turn necessitates the use of a large amount of foam generators to create the intense supply foam solution significantly increases the intensity of the destruction of the foam itself.
    2. For a more rapid decrease in temperature in the combustion zone and extend the range of fire, use foam low ratio (R = 7.10), which have increased range supply by high kinetic energy and high cooling capacity.
    Reducing the temperature in the combustion zone and the surface of the combustible fluid reduces the amount of incoming combustion vapors flammable liquid, that is, a reduction in the concentration of the chemical reaction zone.

/ / Kazgipproneftetrans - 2011.
page .97-99

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