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The new concept of multi-extinguishing high-rise buildings


     Fires in high-rise buildings, which typically include buildings taller than 75 meters or above 9.10 elevated floors (hereinafter - the high-rise buildings), usually lead to serious consequences and significant losses. The lower floors of high-rise buildings podzmenye often used as car parks, which are a fire hazard, and a rooftop equip areas for helicopter landing of various types, which themselves are the objects of high explosive, and the process of landing a high risk of becoming catastrophic.

    In recent years, several countries experienced major fires in high-rise buildings that could not be extinguished by traditional means and methods, resulting in them has been a complete destruction and massive loss of life.
     Currently, for the elimination of fire in the building and parking areas usually use the outdoor fire in a spaced not more than 150 meters of hydrants, which connect the fire trucks to supply water through suhotruby building in height, usually no higher than 9th floor and the means of internal fire sprinkler systems in the form of spray and drnchernyh water curtains.
     According to the requirements of fire safety 110-2003, MGSN 4.04-94, 5.01-01 MGSN and other regulations in the field of fire protection sprinkler systems, fire extinguishing facilities shall be subject to all of the building and parking areas and facilities for public office part also provided deluge curtain .
  To ensure the functioning of the internal fire in high-rise buildings usually includes multiple fire pump stations, performance, and managed in a state of emergency in the power failure is usually problematic.
     Most of the action in the field of fire regulations for high-rise buildings is not true, but they are taken on board, because the special rules and effective means of fighting fires in tall buildings are virtually absent.
     For example, MGSN 1.01-99 requires design and build high-rise buildings in a radius of 2 km from the fire department, but it is known that even the existence of the most advanced technology (cars and helicopters) does not guarantee the timely arrival on the scene of the fire because of the normal load urban highways, airfields and inertia distance aviation units.
    
          Efficiency is reduced due to fire:

  • inability to provide fire-fighting on the floors above the 9-10th;

  • inability to use the most of the traditional systems of internal water supply and fire due to normal power failure and stop fire pumps;

  • inability to use external sprinkler systems in the form of spaced not more than 150 meters away from the building fire hydrants for fire trucks, providing jet quenching the fire on the upper floors;

  • virtually no effective means of fire in high-rise buildings that are used as the initial stage of the fire, and in the process of localization and liquidation of fires.

      Fire protection of the surface of the roofs of tall buildings and helipads on them generally available.
     Currently, there are ways of fighting fires in tall buildings with the help of helicopters . However, their impact is negligible, so most experts aim their efforts at developing systems for fighting fires, located directly inside the high-rise buildings.
   A device of fire suppression in buildings containing source with extinguishing agent, the high pressure supply of this compound in the protected space, connected through valves, and pressure-building units of water - power, in which the source of extinguishing agent is used for domestic and drinking water main . However, this device does not promptly supply the high costs of extinguishing agent in the heat source, has a complex structure and low operating reliability.
     Fire Suppression System, described in the patent , is also characterized by a complex structure that does not provide the extinguishing of the hearth fire, at great expense and at great height (Centrifugal pumps are generally not able to pump water up 40-60 m).
     The authors of proposed extinguishing device containing a sealed container for storage of extinguishing agent under high pressure pipelines to supply it in the protected area, a means of maintaining the pressure in the specified capacity. A disadvantage of this device is that the supply of extinguishing agent is stored in a separate container from the building, which is due to the presence of high pressure can not be too large, so the amount of extinguishing agent is severely limited, which in turn reduces the efficiency of firefighting, especially in large-scale evolved fires.
     These systems are fundamentally not suitable for high-rise and high-rise buildings due to the formation on the lower floors of extreme pressure by the addition to the existing hydrostatic column of fire extinguishing fluid.

      LLC RPA "SOPOT"  proposed a new solution, according to which the extinguishing product and its distribution in the protected areas of the building is a high-rise located on the roof or in the higher floor of the premises to the protection of the container by means of the hydrostatic pressure of the column of extinguishing agent. In As a final proposed use foam low and medium expansion.
     The pipe feeding the fire-extinguishing agent into protected areas is carried out in a vertical pipeline and located predominantly horizontal lines going into the protected area.
     Storage tank fire extinguishing equipment and pipeline for its submission to the protected areas do the communicating systems hohyaystvenno and domestic water supply and sanitation skyscraper.
     To be able to extinguish the fire in the upper floors and the roof of high-rise buildings are used means of creating additional pressure extinguishing agent in the pipeline, such as attached to the water tank and pipeline facilities extinguishing fire pumps.

 To eliminate indoor fires high-rise building fire cabinets developed a new design in which structure has the capacity to foam, penosmesheniya system, installation of combined firefighting - ICFF "Blizzard" (2 pcs. Capacity of 2 l / s each), connected with fire hoses internal valves. To get enough foam turn the tap, ensuring that access to water and foam mixer ICFF "Blizzard", in which the body is formed medium expansion foam jet with a range up to 15 m is used as a foaming agent biologically soluble species, such as OP 6 CU.
     In order to create head pressure extinguishing sostavav pipeline for its supply of the water tank and foam solution can be made watertight and provided with a means to create pressure in them.
     The proposed fire suppression system is practically implemented in Krylatsky hills in Moscow in the multifunctional complex with office and part of the underground car park and includes: located on the roof of a high-rise building under the helipad of the water tank (capacity 20 m3) and foaming agent (3 m3) , a system of ejection foam in water supply pipeline, pipelines passing through all the floors of the building up to the mark - 18.4 m
     Autonomous fighting system in the building is divided into two parts:

  • the first unit - pressure which the system from the top to the bottom floor car park is under constant hydrostatic pressure, formed as a result of the pressure of the water column from the roof-top container;

  • the second block on the upper floors of high-rise building includes water tank and foam, two fire pumps with electric drive (primary and secondary) capacity of at least 20 l / s each, foam ejection system and a pipeline connecting the stand-alone unit with 10-13 floor. This unit also provides fire fighting on the helipad with prmeneniem ICFF "Blizzard-5", ICFF "Blizzard-10" or ICFF "Blizzard-30" production LLC RPA "SOPOT".

Firefighting on all floors provide parking installation ICFF "Blizzard-10", located at the fire fighting equipment at the rate of not less than 1 pc. to the cabinet. Fire boxes on the floors can be fitted foam suction ejection system, valve DN 51-66 mm, fire hose 20 m long and 51 mm diameter, ICFF "Blizzard-2" (2 pcs.)      And the canister with a capacity of 10-20 liters frother.

     The proposed concept is different fire engineering simplicity, and the use of foam as a fire-extinguishing agent can significantly increase the efficiency while reducing losses from the quenching process.

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