Most of the domestic and foreign designers use as reference parameters for calculating fixed fire extinguishing systems design area and intensity of the fire fighting extinguishing agent. Multiplying these values, we obtain the required fire extinguishing expenses needed to extinguish a fire on some theoretical (sometimes arbitrarily chosen) projected area. It does not address the issue or the impact of the wind (if a fire occurs in an open area), nor the need for fire protection of the facilities inside the area (for example, when it comes to putting out a helicopter on the helipad).
A number of designers as the primary means of extinguishing are placed in the project to use water, even where its use may actually lead to the spread of fire, and not to fire (such as for irrigation or air spaces with motor vehicles). Other experts recommend only low expansion foam (R = 7) or only medium expansion foam (R = more than 50-70), even despite the fact that the practice and results of research and development konstruktornyh studies show that the most high-extinguishing efficiency have foam multiplicity 20-40.
The fallacy of making pleasant aggravated projects included in fire protection equipment and fire extinguishing using fluorinated blowing agents based on components such as AFFF (Aqueous Film Forming Foam), which actually proved its effectiveness in real-extinguishing large fires, both offshore and onshore objects, but on the contrary, contributed to environmental damage because of its high (see the incident in the Gulf of Mexico) environmental risk. By the way, for almost 10 years as the production of fluorinated blowing agents banned UN Committee on Ecology and the Environment.
The reason for the ineffectiveness of design solutions for fire protection explosive objects in our opinion, is exactly what the basis for calculations is taken not required (required) speed fire on a specific subject, and the flow rate and the design area.
In our opinion, the basis of the initial data for the design is to be taken the minimum time in which the object should be a way not only to locate, but also for fire suppression. This parameter can be obtained on the basis of preliminary studies of the dynamics of physical and chemical processes of combustion in the protected object and the impact factors of a fire on the design of the equipment and devices that are on the subject, as well as on the environment.
For example, in fire aviation equipment, including helicopters, it should be borne in mind that the design of the helicopter withstand flames for up to 30-40c. With a longer fire inside the helicopter are critical to human life conditions, construction materials begin to break down helicopters, vessels and equipment under pressure (arms and ammunition) are beginning to explode, creating the threat of a catastrophic space.
Thus, in a particular case, such as the development of concepts of protection of helipads must proceed from the fact that the fire must be brought under control, and at best, put in a time of 1 min., Irrespective of the area, which has spread fire.
For example, assuming that the area of fire is a constant (in the case of a helipad limited coaming size 20x20 m, ie 400m2), and the time required extinguishing 30-40 sec., Therefore the quenching rate should be at least 10-13 m2 / s.
This parameter allows you to choose the one fighting equipment which allows the simultaneous quenching, cooling design and development of fire prevention or re-ignition on the protected area at the right time.
This approach was adopted by the JSC NPO "Sopot" as a basis for the design and development of a comprehensive fire suppression at sites of sea and shore-based high explosive.
The system implements a new technology extinguishing foams different dispersion and multiplicity, ie provides simultaneous flow jet pen low and medium expansion or water spray to the increased distance.
One of the key elements of the system are its ultimate units (fire monitors), the effectiveness of which depends on the time of fire extinguishing.
This set of combined firefighting ICFF "Blizzard", the number and power, which is also selected by calculation.
So, for example, to protect the oil platform deck and helideck can be used fire monitors ICFF "Blizzard" 100 ICFF "Blizzard" 150 or ICFF "Blizzard" 300.
Created on the basis of R & D units provide the foam of low and medium ratio at a distance of 100 to 170m. Capacity from 100 to 135 l / s.
Settings are controlled remotely. Managed by the operator, located in the module.
Perhaps the use of robotic systems based ICFF "Blizzard" with high extinguishing efficiency.
Given p adius of the developed systems, the average is up to 150m. and taking into account the loss of extinguishing agent in flight, cash-protected area of 15,000 m2.
To meet a set of goals developed stand of container Fire Modules (APMKT), whose main purpose is to ensure the water supply foam solution required flow and pressure for fire extinguishing installations.
|Autonomous fire unit of container (APMKT)
The main element of the complex is the diesel pump station, located inside a standard shipping container. Insulated container. In the upper part of the master stream nozzle is placed ICFF "Blizzard" 300 with a remote control.
The design capacity of the engine is about 600 kW. Performance of the pump unit 1000 m3/h The developed pressure - 120-160 m
The container is equipped with a fuel tank with a margin of 3-4 hours of battery life. Starting the motor starter from its own battery.
The module is equipped with an autonomous system penosmesheniya which supply 3-6% of foaming solution. Used foam or synthetic hydrocarbon Russian producers.
The system consists of a water tank and foam, the number of which is determined by calculation and shall provide fire suppression throughout the protected area at a given time.