Theory and praktikapozharnoy
G.Kuprin, Ph.D., CEO of the NGO "Sopot", Vice President WASCS
UKTP "Blizzard-30" in action (range jet of medium expansion foam up to 45m) MIRV practice of conducting anti-terrorist operations are cases when during the assault commandos captured terrorists aircraft hostage by bandits used explosives or fireworks, firearms, resulting in in the plane and around a fire, which is actually reduced to a nulyuvse efforts predatvrascheniyu terrorist attack because of the timing measures to eliminate burning.
An aircraft with fuel, is an object of high explosive and explosion hazard.
Aircraft structure made of light alloy and is usually not withstand exposure to high temperatures in a fire. Quickly and easily damaged, and they are also exposed to explosives or terrorist use of small arms and incendiary devices.
Therefore, it is a plane for terrorists among the most vulnerable targets for terrorist attacks. He also presented and the most advantageous in terms of psychological pressure on people.
Consider what happens when a plane hijacked and they use explosives (HE) or start the fire.
For example, if the explosives were located in the fuselage fuel tanks inside the aircraft immediately burst into the burning fuel. Inside, a fire, in which 40 to 60 percent of passengers are killed instantly. The survivors may die within 30-60 on the next second.
If the plane starts shooting and the bullets fall into the coffered fuel tanks, then an explosion, resulting in rigid structures destroyed tanks and burning fuel spread out around the plane, creating a sea of fire. In this design the airplane from the outside are exposed to high temperatures.
As a result, after 30-40 seconds, the fuselage skin begins to burn through and in the cabin there are products of decomposition and combustion. The temperature inside the plane rises sharply, and in one to two minutes after the occurrence of a fire in the cabin outside are critical (dangerous to human life) conditions. Temperature increases from 30 to 120 - 130 0C already in the first minute to the start of combustion. Among the passengers and panic, which is exacerbated by the products of combustion, smoke. Often people attempt to break immediately to the exit leading to a stampede in which most of the passengers killed. In the following minutes the burn-out of the fuselage skin, and people are already dying from the effects of high temperatures.
If immediately after the occurrence of an explosion and fire on the plane did not take measures to eliminate burning, the fire is usually completely destroys the plane, with more than 90% of passengers are killed.
If an explosion and fire on board is fighting or military transport aircraft, which has arms, ammunition and the more nuclear weapons, the consequences of terrorist attacks can be disastrous to the nearest town or even a country.
Therefore, if terrorists threaten to blow up or burn the aircraft, anti-terrorist units should begin the assault, having to release the hostages and eliminate the militants, only when there is a 100 per cent (better to say, second), the system is ready, providing fire protection of an airliner. Therefore, to fire extinguishing systems in the course of anti-terrorist operations have special requirements. In particular, the rate of elimination of combustion should be as high and at least 10 - 20 m / s. This requirement will ensure the protection of the crew and passengers of an aircraft in critical conditions.
Need to find a special fire in the immediate area of the antiterrorist operation is caused by the fact that there should be the possibility of their application before the storm or in its process. After all, if, prior to the assault the terrorists had set in motion explosive and incendiary, the fire started fighting groups will not perform the surgery. The flames would not let them go to the salon.
Thus, the concept of anti-terrorist actions, in our view, should include the use of instant fire protection, and the concept of fire-fighting should be capable of battle group operation to rescue the hostages in the simultaneous or sequential application of fire extinguishing agents.
The airports of the world to date to extinguish fires on aircraft used cars low, medium and high capacity having (ICAO requirement) high speed. These technical tools are usually equipped with powerful monitors (fire monitors) providing a compact water and foam jets with high energy. This is enough energy to knock a man to inflict injury, or even to cause an explosive device or cause the detonation of munitions.
Consequently, the use of compact and dynamic jet during anti-terrorist operations is undesirable and inefficient.
At the same time, in recent years in the St. Petersburg ZAO NPO "Sopot", St. Petersburg, a new way of extinguishing foams different dispersion and multiplicity, which provides smooth application of the burning fuel and the object of the foam. In the zone of influence of foam jets creates chilled zone, protected by which to carry out rescue operations, and perhaps even to eliminate terrorists.
A distinctive feature of this technology is that the combustion zone served crushed foam jet high multiplicity (light foam), which have increased range and high supply of fire extinguishing efficiency.
This technology is implemented in a combined fire fighting units "Purga" (UKTP "Blizzard"). Settings are made in the form of hand generators (portable) and stationary and mobile systems.
Effectiveness of UKTP "Purga" proved long practice extinguishing fires with them flammable liquids and numerous tests during fire fighting aircraft at various airports in Russia and conduct research and development on the basis of the Air Force and GNIKI GosNIIGA.
For example, in the case of fire around the aircraft fuel spilled units provide the quenching rate of 15-20 m2 per second, with the flammable liquid on the surface creates a layer of foam, which prevents the release of vapor in the combustion zone. The presence of such a layer of foam contributes to the safe conduct of rescue operations for passengers and crew. Units provide simultaneous cooling of the aircraft structure and to protect it from the effects of fire.
A Analysis on the quenching process aviation fire and rescue shows the possibility of using this technology, fire-fighting, is developed by the NGO "Sopot" in the anti-terrorist operation. It is necessary to take into account a number of features.
For example, during the assault aircraft, carried out during the combustion of fuel, foam jets should be given to the direction of motion capture. In this Special Forces soldiers will not be blinded by the foam and meets them terrorists will not see anything.
Certainly, the concept of mandatory anti-terrorist operation requires lengthy preparation of numerous trainings in terms of interaction with the forces that provide fire protection.